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admin on April 10th, 2014

Everyone knows what a cuckoo is, even non-birders and the most disconnected of human beings. Well, maybe more like 70% of non-birders but let’s just say that cuckoos are among the better known of birds because of this one in Europe that constantly repeats its name and has the evolutionary gall to lays its eggs in the nests of other birds. The immediate anthropogenic response is something along the lines of “What a feathered cad”!

No point in judging the behavior of an animal that has nothing to do with people but it does at least make folks more familiar that particular family of birds. What the non-birders don’t realize is that there are a lot more cuckoos than the one flying around and dropping its progeny off in the nests of other species. Bird anywhere in the world and you start to realize that cuckoos come in many sizes and are all over the place (sort of). Go to Africa and you realize that some cuckoos are even as pretty as cotingas. Don’t believe me?Jjust take a gander at a few photos of a chlorophonia copying Emerald Cuckoo or a purple and white Violet Cuckoo!

In the Americas, our cuckoos aren’t nearly as colorful but they still entertain with cool, lanky looks, and weirdo behaviors. One of the more interesting groups of cuckoos found in the Americas is that of the ground cuckoos. Up in the USA, we become familiarized with that bunch of birds by way of the Greater Roadrunner (another obviously very well known cuckoo). Go birding in the neotropics and you eventually realize that there are some other crazy looking ground cuckoos out there. We look at their pictures in the field guides and are dazzled by their colored eyerings and exotic appearance and of course can’t wait to see them.

That's a cool colored eyering.

As we read trip reports and look more into the matter, though, we come to the sinking conclusion that they are a pain to see. In fact, some are so tough to glimpse that it sounds as if it takes a major mix of birding effort and luck to tick them off the list. Those much wanted mega birds are the Neomorphus species cuckoos, the official ground-cuckoos of the rainforest. They sort of look like roadrunners in size and shape but unfortunately, the similarities end right about there. Unlike the easy-going, readily accessible roadrunner, the ground cuckoos of the rainforest are super shy birds that live in very low density populations (so it seems). We don’t know much about them because they are so hard to study

The other thing that makes them tough to encounter is because they need big areas of primary forest. These things are top insectivores of the understory so they requite lots of big katydids, frogs, lizards, and other prey items large enough to keep them going. With that in mind, we can surmise where the best places in Costa Rica are for seeing this country’s Neomorphus ground-cuckoo, the Rufous-vented. However, before thinking about the locations of the most intact forests, we also need to consider its geographic and elevational ranges. In Costa Rica, historically, the good old RV G Cuckoo was found on the Caribbean slope from the lowlands up to about 1,200 meters. Sadly, we have to say historically because it just does not survive in pasture, cultivations, and small patches of forest that have become standard in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica.

A lot of other species still occur, including Green Ibis.

With that in mind, we can start narrowing the search. Of course, known sightings also help in not only telling us where to look but also in the types of habitats that support that sneaky cuckoo. Overall, the place that stands out in terms of RV G Cuckoo sightings is Las Heliconias lodge. This awesome birding spot is situated in high quality, old growth forest at around 1,000 meters elevation and is indeed located on the Caribbean slope. It’s also a pretty large area of rainforest. If we check Google Earth for sites in Costa Rica with similar amounts of forest at either that elevation or lower, here are some other places to check in addition to Celeste Mountain Lodge and other places in the same forest complex as Heliconias:

Trail signs at Heliconias.

  • The other northern volcanoes: These would be Rincon de la Vieja, Miravalles, and Orosi. Little birding is done in these areas compared to other sites in Costa Rica but if you can find places to stay and access the habitat, it will be well worth the effort. The ground-cuckoo has indeed been seen on the main trail at Rincon de la Vieja and should be possible at other rainforest sites in the park. Given the amount of intact rainforest on the other volcanoes, the bird very likely occurs there as well.
  • Caribbean foothills and middle elevations in the Tilaran Mountains: The bird has definitely been recorded on the road to Manuel Brenes (by your’s truly) and from Lands in Love. Given the extent of rainforest at similar elevations at Pocosol, Cerro Chato, and even the Arenal Observatory Lodge, it probably also occurs at those sites too. Even though it hasn’t been recorded from the Observatory Lodge, it should be there based on the amount of quality forest.
  • Rara Avis and Braulio Carrillo National Park: It has been seen at El Plastico and might also occur at Rara Avis. The cuckoo has also been seen at Quebrada Gonzalez if very seldom. Since the forests haven’t changed at those sites since known sightings, the species should still be present. It has also been seen at the Rainforest Arial Tram but I hesitate to even mention it because the place seems more intent on selling package tours for the tram than allowing people to pay an entrance fee for birding only.

    What ground cuckoo habitat looks like.

  • Maquenque Lodge and Laguna del Lagarto: Although there are more edge effects in the northern complex of forests than other sites mentioned, I bet it still occurs because there is quite a bit of rainforest up that way.
  • Barbilla National Park and Hitoy Cerere: No reports but that’s no problem because those sites receive so little coverage. Nevertheless, the elevation and extent of forest points to them being likely sites for the RF G Cuckoo.

Ok, so now for a few sites where it might occur but if it still does, must be pretty darn rare:

  • La Selva and Sarapiqui: Although it would seem that la Selva should be a great area for the bird, given the absence of sightings despite almost constant coverage, don’t count on finding it there. I suspect that the forests of La Selva just aren’t connected well enough with the forests in Braulio where it does occur for it to become reestablished. I hope I am wrong and that it makes it into La Selva without being noticed but given the reduction in other understory species, it seems like La Selva won’t be a place for the ground cuckoo until there is a lot more, older forest in the corridor with Braulio.
  • Tortuguero National Park: A lot of forest but since most of it is swampy, this doesn’t seem suitable for the ground cuckoo. The same can be said about Barra del Colorado. Sungrebe yes, ground-cuckoo no.
  • Puerto Viejo de Talamanca and Manzanillo: There is just about no birding being done on the forested hills above these places (the Fila Carbon) so who knows, maybe it occurs? That said, it doesn’t seem like this is a likely area for the ground cuckoo because the forests there lack connection with the more extensive rainforests at the base of the Talamanca Mountains.

So, there is a bit of a round up on where and where not to look for the Rufous-vented Ground-Cuckoo in Costa Rica. However, knowing where to look is half the battle. The other half is knowing how to look for it. Given its low density populations, there is hardly a guaranteed best way to find the ground cuckoo but finding an antswarm in the right habitat definitely improves your chances.  Although people have chanced upon them at Heliconias, local guides there have seen them most often by locating an antswarm and sticking with the swarm until the cuckoos show up (even if it takes two or more hours).

Ok, so this might sound discouraging if you had hoped to see one of those wild, rainforest roadrunners in Costa Rica, but keep in mind that another ground cuckoo also occurs and it’s a lot easier to see! Unlike the big old RV G Cuckoo, the Lesser Ground Cuckoo doesn’t need rainforest. In fact, it doesn’t seem to like forest at all because it is commonly found in scrubby fields and second growth throughout much of northwestern Costa Rica. I have even had it at sites near San Ramon, Alajuela, and close to Santa Elena. Sure it’s shy but with patience, this one is at least 100 times easier to see than its larger cousin.

A Lesser Ground Cuckoo not on the ground.

Good luck with the ground cuckoo and please post a comment if you see one!

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Yesterday, I guided a couple on the Poas-Cinchona-Nature Pavilion route. This always makes for a fun, easy-going tour because it puts the focus on feeders and photography with such extra possibilities as mixed flocks, and target birds like Black Guan, Resplendent Quetzal, Prong-billed Barbet, toucans, and high elevation endemics. Although the unusual hot, dry weather on the Caribbean slope has put a damper on bird activity (and can’t be doing anything good for birds, plants, insects, or anything other life forms adapted to rain on a daily basis), we still connected with the guan, quetzal, barbet, and an overall nice variety of birds.

A Prong-billed Barbet from another day at Cinchona. We saw one at the Volcan Restaurant.

Hummingbird feeder activity was especially good and was the main focus on our attention. At our first main stop, the Cinchona Cafe, we were treated to near constant hummingbird activity. One of the most common species was the big, bold, and beautiful Violet Sabrewing.

Male Violet Sabrewing.

At least 6 males were present and one female eventually showed as well.

The sabrewing was outnumbered, however, by Green-crowned Brilliants. At times, one feeder would play host to 6 or 7 brilliants, including juvenile males.

A male Green-crowned Brilliant .

A frontal view of a male brilliant.

The next most common hummingbird species was the tiny Coppery-headed Emerald, a white-tailed, middle elevation sprite with a slightly decurved bill.

A close, front view of a female Coppery-headed Emerald.

Green Hermits were also visiting the feeders more than they usually do (I wonder if the Heliconias they feed on are suffering from lack of rain), a few White-bellied Mountain Gems also made an appearance, and a couple of Rufous-tailed Hummingbirds were around.

Rufous-tailed Hummingbird.

One Green Violetear was present but fed on flowering bushes instead of sugar water at the feeders. Rounding out the Cinchona hummingbird show were a few male and female Green Thorntails. Sometimes, the thorntails and other hummingbirds would perch within arm’s length.

A male Green Thorntail at Cinchona.

After enjoying a delicious country breakfast accompanied by hummingbirds, we moved on down slope to the Nature Pavilion. Being situated in the Caribbean lowlands, this site has a totally different set of hummingbirds (except for the near ubiquitous Rufous-tailed). White-necked Jacobin is the regular species at this site although hermits can also zip by, woodnymphs usually show up (although not yesterday), and Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer makes an appearance or two (we did have this one).

A male White-necked Jacobin.

Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer- note the red feet!

In addition to hummingbirds, we also did alright with other bird species even during the heat of the mid-morning. Two pairs of Rufous Motmots showed well down by the river along with Bay Wren, Collared Aracari, and a brief Keel-billed Toucan. A Black-mandibled also called but wouldn’t reveal itself.

A female Gartered Trogon from the Nature Pavilion.

Vivid Red-legged Honeycreepers were feeding in a flowering tree when not feeding on fruit.

A Striped Basilisk also showed well at the Nature Pavilion.

When the clock got close to noon, we headed back upslope, and drove on up to the Volcan Restaurant. This hotspot is situated at a much cooler 2,000 meters and shows it with birds like Magnificent Hummingbird, and Purple-throated Mountain Gem.

Magnificent Hummingbird.

We also enjoyed the antics of several Volcano Hummingbirds (all females but didn’t pick out any Scintillants), Green Violetear, a couple more Violet Sabrewings, Green-crowned Brilliants, one female Magenta-throated Woodstar, and a female Stripe-tailed Hummingbird.

A Volcano Hummingbird at the feeder.

A female Magenta-throated Woodstar.

A female Stripe-tailed Hummingbird.

The forested riparian zone at the restaurant also dished out some non hummingbird birdies, including Prong-billed Barbet, Spangle-cheeked Tanager, Long-tailed Silky Flycatcher, Slate-throated Redstart, and a few other species, one of which was a female quetzal! A small Lauraceous tree next to the stream had some fruits and the female was actively feeding on them.

After getting our fill of a good lunch, lots of hummingbirds, and the birds in the riparian zone, we checked out the higher elevation forests near the entrance to the national park. They had already seen lots of Fiery-throated Hummingbirds at Paraiso de Quetzales but that didn’t stop us from looking at a few that were feeding on flowering bromeliads. Other birds included a quick Black Guan, Sooty, Mountain, and Black-billed Nightingale Thrushes, Yellow-thighed Finch, Slaty Flowerpiercer, some very nice looks at several Golden-browed Chlorophonias, Black and yellow Silky Fkycatcher, and both Common and Sooty-capped Bush Tanagers.

A fun day overall, it makes me want to go back up there and just hike off into the highland forests on Poas.

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admin on March 27th, 2014

March has always been the most popular month for birding in Costa Rica. The third month was sort of elected as high time to watch birds in Costa Rica because this is when the dry season coincides with a higher degree of bird song as well as such highlights as raptor migration and lekking umbrellabirds. While the umbrellabird show requires a hike down to the San Gerardo Field Station (until another more accessible lek can be located), it’s pretty easy to watch thousands of raptors stream north when birding the Caribbean lowlands, and yes, more birds do seem to vocalize.

Tropical Parulas have been singing at many sites.

As for myself, I was kept quite busy with guiding this recent March birding season. Trips to classic sites like Carara, and foothill birding around Lands in Love and Quebrada Gonzalez helped push my year list over 500 (without doing any real birding in the Caribbean lowlands!). One of my best year birds and an addition to my country list was the Cedar Waxwing. This uncommon, irruptive species showed up in the Central Valley at the end of February, especially around fruiting figs near the Finca Rosa Blanca. It was kind of surreal to see a bird species that I completely associate with warm spring and lazy summer days in upstate New York and Pennsylvania.

A Cedar Waxwing goes on vacation in Costa Rica.

Scarlet Macaw had been showing well at Cerro Lodge.

Lots of Black-hooded Antshrikes at Carara as always.

Over at Cinchona, the feeders have been visited by the usual Prong-billed Barbets, Emerald Toucanets, Silver-throated Tanagers, and others. The lost Prothonotary Warbler was still nibbling on bananas during the first days of March. Other nice birds near Cinchona included the usual array of flycatchers, tanagers, occasional Red-headed Barbet, White Hawk, Barred Hawk, and so on.

Prong-billed Barbet

There is a Prothonotary Warbler coming to a feeder in this image.

Lower down on the Caribbean slope, mixed flocks have been good at Quebrada Gonzalez. The mixed flock activity at that site is always sort of hit or miss but usually yields White-throated Shrike Tanager, Russet Antshrike, Western Woodhaunter, and several other tanager species. Sharpbill can and does show up and even Gray-headed Piprites is possible. During visits there in March, I also had Black and Ornate Hawk Eagles, Barred Hawk, Double-toothed Kite, and reliable Lattice-tailed Trogon. Streak-chested Antpitta has also been calling and showed well one day on the Ceiba trail.

Over at Lands in Love, antwarms have been alright and yielded views of the 3 obligate antbirds. No ground cuckoo but that mega is certainly a possibility if you hit an antswarm inside the forest (our’s was only at the edge of the woods). Raptor watching from the Loveats Cafe has yet to give me a Solitary Eagle or hawk-eagles but we did have very nice looks at King Vulture and Short-tailed Hawk on the last visit there.

Spotted Antbird.

In my own little backyard, in addition to the usual visits by Cinnamon and Rufous-tailed Hummingbirds, I have also been happy to see a female Canivet’s Emerald.

Canivet's Emerald

One memorable day, I was happy to meet up with Dani Lopez Velasco. Dani is a Spanish birding guide who leads tours for Birdquest. We had a fun morning looking for and seeing Prevost’s Ground Sparrow (Cabanis’s) at Ujarras while he entertained with tales of guiding adventurous trips to the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and an incredible trip to the southern, albatross filled oceans. He is guiding a tour in Costa Rica at this moment and has already helped clients see Unspotted Saw-whet Owl.

We saw many more White-eared Ground Sparrows than Prevost's. I suspect that the White-eared is displacing Prevost's in many areas.

Others have been seeing bellbirds at Monteverde, umbrellabirds at San Gerardo, and a pair of White-fronted Nunbirds at La Selva. So nice to hear that they are being seen again at the research station as they used to be a common bird there. Others have been telling me about seeing quetzals in the usual high elevation sites, and Jim Zook recently submitted an eBird report with sightings of both White-tailed and Rufous Nightjars from the Durika Road. Sounds like now is the time to get those rare species on your Costa Rica list (I still need them)!

The other big news for birding in Costa Rica has to be a nesting Savannah Hawk- first recorded breeding for the country by Fundacion Rapaces de Costa Rica! While the location of the nest hasn’t been revealed, the species has been regular south and west of Ciudad Neily.

Good luck with spring birding no matter where you may be doing it. I hope to see some migrants over the next few days as they make their way north.

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admin on March 21st, 2014

Over the past week, I have been pretty busy with guiding around Carara, Lands in Love, and Braulio Carrillo. Birding overall, has been kind of slow because of the unusually dry weather on the Caribbean slope (yeah, it may be the dry season but that lack of rain is supposed to be reserved for the Pacific side), but the place has still produced some nice birds.

Forest birding has been pretty slow but still turned up a Semiplumbeous Hawk. This lowland species was also been recently reported by other guests of Lands in Love.

A Semiplumbeous Hawk watches for prey from the canopy.

Despite the sunny, happy raptor flying conditions, the only other “good” raptor species has been King Vulture seen soaring from the Loveat Cafe. That said, it’s always worth watching for hawk-eagles and who knows what else.

The trails have turned up a few mixed understory flocks with Streak-crowned Antvireo, Slaty Antwren, and Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner but not too much else. If it would rain, I bet they will be really good and oh how the Caribbean slope needs rain! Since we are talking about forests that evolved with 4,000 meters per year and rain almost every day, dry conditions are not going to do anything good for the habitat.

Back to birds. Although I haven’t seen any Snowcaps at Lands in Love recently, flowering Erythrinas have been attracting Blue-throated Goldentail and should bring in some other nice hummingbirds. The best hummingbird, though, was a White-tipped Sicklebill heard and briefly seen on the beginning on the main trail. There are a lot of Heliconias in that area so keep an eye out for this mega hermit creature.

One day, antswarms were pretty good in the habitat right below the cabins. We saw a few Bicolored, at least three Ocellated, and a couple of Spotted. Other birds may have been with the ants as well but it was too difficult to look into the habitat to see them.

Spotted Antbird.

A rear view of that Spotted Antbird.

Speaking of that dense habitat, there were also one or two Sepia-capped Flycatchers, Northern Bentbill, Black-faced Anthrush, the usual Black-throated Wrens, White-collared Manakin, Red-throated Ant Tanager, and Black-headed Tody Flycatcher calling from the canopy.

As is typical for the area, we also had good looks at Tropical Parula.

Outside of the forest, we have had good looks at plenty of Black-mandibled and Keel-billed Toucans, occasional Crested Guans, oropendolas, and a good variety of edge species. One of the best were a pair of Great Curassows feeding on guava fruits at the edge of a horse pasture! It was fascinating to watch the male fly into a low guava tree to then knock the fruits to the ground. He then flew down to feed on them along with the female.

A bad hand held shot of a male Great Curassow in a Guava tree.

It was also nice to get looks at a pair of Gray necked Wood Rails hanging out at the ponds.

It’s the type of place where you always see something good. I can’t wait to go back so I can find Keel-billed Motmot, ground cuckoo, and other rarities.

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admin on March 13th, 2014

If this is your first trip to Costa Rica, you may be wondering what some of those birds in the field guide really are. You don’t have any foliage-gleaners or xenops at home. There aren’t any weirdo antpittas hopping around your patch.  Hawk-eagles sound super cool but what are they? A hawk? An eagle? A mega Goshawk? We want to know more about those and other unfamiliar birds (like the Sungrebe and Sunbittern) because that knowledge will hopefully increase our chances of seeing them. In fact, the stranger the name, the more we want to see the bird even if it looks like as average as a House Wren so to help you prepare for your trip to Costa Rica and connect with things like pygmy-tyrants, foliage-gleaners, and a Wrenthrush, here are some definitions:

  • Tinamous: Yes, they truly do look like feathered footballs (the American pigskin kind). This is sort of what they are except that they also have beautiful, whistled vocalizations. Shy, terrestrial footballs.

    Costa Rica is a pretty good place to see the Great Tinamou.

  • Currasows: Not to be confused with the Currawongs of Australia, these are basically neotropical turkeys with the caveat that they are much less common and usually tough to see becasue, like turkeys, people like to eat them. On a brighter note, Costa Rica is the easiest place to see the curly crested Great Curassow. It lives in many protected areas and fairly tame birds occur at several sites.

    A male Great Curassow.

  • Hawk-eagles: If you were hoping that these would actually be mega-Goshawks, you can rejoice in knowing that yes, that is a fair description for these Accipiter-like, powerful raptors. Powerful? Oh yes, especially the Ornate. That cool looking bird has been seen killing and flying up to a branch with a curassow bigger than itself, and regularlly preys upon Squirrel Monkeys in the Amazon. I bet it also take the Central American Squirrel Monkey in the Osa Peninsula.
  • Sunbittern and Sungrebe: The only real similarity between these two much wanted species is the word “sun”. They are sometimes seen in similar places but the Sungrebe needs slow moving lowland rivers and wetlands while the Sunbittern can also live along rocky rivers and streams. Forget about the Sunbittern having anything to do with bitterns. It’s more like a small rail-heron thing that creeps along the edges of forested rivers. As for the Sungrebe, yes, it is rather like a grebe but one that had a Frankenstein love affair with an adventurous rail. Boat rides at Cano Negro, Tortuguero, and Sarapiqui are good ways to get the Sungrebe in Costa Rica.

    Sunbittern.

  • Thick-knee: If you hail from anywhere other than the Americas, this is a neotropical Stone Curlew. For everyone else, it’s a large-headed shorebird thing that loves to hang out in dry fields.
  • Jacamars: Only two species in Costa Rica and one is super rare but the Rufous-tailed is fairly common. This beautiful creature is like a hummingbird crossed with a kingfisher (although it doesn’t dive into the water). A stunning, award winning bird.

    Rufous-tailed Jacamar.

  • Antbirds and antwrens: No, although it’s easy to quickly conclude that these birds must eat ants, they are just as into catching and feasting on larger arthropods as wrens, warblers, and the like. A small part of this big bird family do fallow ants and thus ruined the reputation of the rest. Antbirds and antwrens are basically dull plumaged insectivores that tend to be tough to see because they love to lurk in dense vegetation. They behaviors vary but won’t be like anything from home (unless you come from eastern Asia and have seen babblers).

    Spotted Antbird- one that does follow ants.

  • Antpittas and Antthrushes: More ant-things! These strange birds are especially loved by neotropical birders because they are so different. They tend to be really tough to see because they are experts at staying hidden on or near the dim forest floor. Antpittas are basically feathered balls with two long hopping legs and antthrushes are songbirds pretending to be crakes that live in the rainforest.
  • Woodcreepers: Think giant treecreepers.
  • Foliage-gleaners, xenops, and leaftossers: These are some names for a weird bunch iof borwn and rufous birds that are part of a huge neotropical familymknown as Furnarids or Ovenbirds. Foliage-gleaners do more bromeliad searching than foliage gleaning, the xenops is like a chickadee or titmouse, and leaftossers do indeed toss leaves around (and are a pain to see well).
  • Tyrannulets and pygmy-tyrants: Basically, tiny flycatchers that are a pain to identify. All can be identified with a good look, just focus on the bill and take notes. The pygmy-tyrants and tody-flycatchers are as small as hummingbirds. Don’t be surprised if you see a bug that becomes one of these tiny things when you put the binos on it.

    A tiny Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher.

  • Sharpbill: So, it does sort of have a sharp bill but it got that name because it’s in a class of its own. Watch for it in mixed flocks at foothill rainforest sites on the Caribbean slope.
  • Gnatwrens: These are brown, neotropical gnatcatchers that happen to be just as hyperactive as their gray and white kin. Anyone who manages a good photo of a gnatwren should win a prize.
  • Silky-flycatchers: These are in the same family as the Phainopepla. If you don’t know that oddly named bird, the two species in Costa Rica act sort of like waxwings.
  • Euphonias: Small, neotropical siskin like birds that love mistletoe berries.

    The beautiful Golden-browed Chlorophonia is a euphonia too.

  • The Wrenthrush: Not a wren, not a thrush. A warbler for now although it looks more like a Tesia. What the heck is a Tesia? That’s an Asian bird that looks like a Wrenthrush of course! Ok, so they all look like small, hyper short-tailed things with fairly uniform plumage with color on the crown.

    Wrenthrush.

I hope these definitions will help you see more birds in Costa Rica. A lot of these can also be applied to birding in Panama, Peru, and other Neotropical places although in bird crazy South America, the names are even more provocative and strange (recurvebills, coronets, canasteros, and even a firewood gatherer to name a few).

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A couple of weeks ago, Susan Blank, Robert Dean, and I ventured out into the Costa Rican wilds to identify as many birds as we could. Although the birding Big Day to end all Big days didn’t officially start until we put on our birding ninja head bands (I wish I had one but they were only figurative), the Big Day really began in January, 2014. That was when we began to think about and discuss our strategy. With the help of personal experience and eBird, we defined and refined the route. Times were taken between key sites to see if we could manage that extra two or five minutes. The road status site for Costa Rica was checked and rechecked. Targets were planned, energy bars were purchased, we had enough yuca chips to keep us going for days, and we were ready to break all records!

Here are some of the factors we took into account to increase our chances of hearing and seeing more species in less time (because that is the basic goal of a Big Day of course):

  • Dawn starting Point: Since dawn chorus is key to picking up dozens of forest species, the point for starting the day is of essential importance. Instead of starting out on the Caribbean slope as we had done on past Big Days, we opted for getting into the dawn chorus on the Pacific slope at the Bijagual Road. We opted for that birdy spot because this eliminated the chance of getting rained out in the morning on the Caribbean slope, and the Bijagual Road would give us a chance at hearing many rainforest species in Carara National Park, catch birds as they flew to and from morning roosts, and pick out birds perched in the canopy of the forest.
  • Enough time to check out the Tarcoles estuary: On past attempts, time ran out before we could look for waterbirds at the Tarcoles estuary. This year, we would have time to get our only shorebirds at this one key coastal spot. We would have also liked to include Mata de Limon and Guacalillo but there just wouldn’t be enough time to include those important sites.
  • The need to get as many species as possible during the night: Those dark hours can be vital not just for owls, but also for rails, herons, and whatever else might call before dawn than during the light of the day.
  • Being acutely aware of the time: We knew that we couldn’t allow ourselves to allocate more time to areas that wouldn’t yield as many species. This was why we only gave ten or so minutes for dry forest species.

These were some of the main factors we took into account, now this is how we spent February 22, 2014:

12:00 am: The day starts but we watch birds in our dreams because we didn’t see how two extra hours would give us any extra birds. I know, what were we thinking (!) but honestly, we would have just roamed the back roads of the windy Central Valley like bino-toting zombies.

2:00 am-3:30 am: Now, we could officially start! I drove over to Susan’s, read the ABA Big Day rules, loaded the car with various food and drink, and off we went! There was a big moon in a beautiful night sky as we drove over to the nearby golf course but nary a Tropical Screech or other owl species called. That’s alright, because we had a back up plan! This involved driving over to the nearby Zamora Estate where we hoped to get owls, a heron or two, and who knows what other night birds. That worked out with a Mottled Owl upon arrival, Black-bellied Whistling Duck, and both Boat-billed and Black-crowned Night Herons calling from the ponds. The uncommon Black-crowned was a bonus. We also tried for Barn and Striped Owl sans success. After thanking one of the owners for letting us enter the place in the middle of the night and bidding adieu, it was back off to the highway for a quick night drive to the Cerro Lodge road.

Hearing this avian gargoyle was enough to count it.

4:15 am-4:45 am: We opted for skipping Orotina for the Black and white Owl because we had just as good a chance for it at Cerro Lodge. This eventually proved to be true as we heard that species, Pacific Screech Owl, another Mottled Owl, and Ferruginous Pygmy owl, along with Common Pauraque, Purple Gallinule, and Southern Lapwing. No Barn or Striped Owls nor the hoped for thick knee but with ten species under the belt, we were off to a good start!

This is the easiest owl to see in Costa Rica.

5:00 am: A quick stop at the croc bridge for the thick knee was aborted after a minute because the traffic was too noisy and no thick knees called anyways.

5:15 am-8:30 am: This was it! We were on the Bijagual Road and as hoped, a Spectacled Owl made it onto the list near Villa Lapas. I’m not sure if we got anything else between then and the “death cicadas” but fortunately, those incredibly loud arthropods stopped their unhealthy din after about 20 minutes. As we could barely hear anything else, we probably missed birds but we did alright (ohh, how I hope those cicadas became meals for other animals in the forest). I’m not sure how many species we got but highlights were much needed target forest birds like Crested Guan, Great Curassow, Ruddy Quail Dove, Gray-chested Dove, White-whiskered Puffbird, Golden-crowned Spadebill, Chesnut-backed Antbird, Black-faced Antthrush, both tinamous, Scarlet Macaw and 5 species of parrots and parakeets, Blue-crowned Motmot, Lineated, Pale-billed, Golden-naped, and Hoffmann’s Woodpeckers, two trogons, Black-mandibled Toucan, Fiery-billed Aracari, Plain Xenops, Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, 3 manakins, Orange-billed Sparrow, 6 wrens, Painted Bunting, Rufous-tailed Jacamar, Gray-headed Tanager, and so on.

We also saw the most Western Tanagers and Philadelphia Vireos we had ever seen in one place in Costa Rica, ever. Those two species must have been migrating because the Western was one of the most common species there (this does not happen in Costa Rica), and Phillies were all over the place. Among those Phillies was also at least one Warbling Vireo, a nice, rare surprise! Despite getting well over 100 species, we were actually missing several key birds. We got Gray and White Hawks but other raptors failed to show or be seen in the canopy (that idea was a bust), very few woodcreepers called (might have been drowned out by the death cicadas), and we saw few birds flying to and from roosts. However, one other bonus on the road was scoping a very distant mud flat that gave us several herons, White Ibis, and Roseate Spoonbill.

We also heard this jovial (maniacal) bird.

One of our three manakins.

8:30 am-11:00 am: This time was dedicated to edge and dry forest species, and coastal birds around Tarcoles and near Cerro Lodge. This worked out for the most part with many targets being found including Yellow-naped Parrot, both caracaras, Osprey, Common Black Hawk, Roadside Hawk, Bare-throated Tiger Heron, Little Blue Heron, Green Kingfisher, bonus Olivaceous Piculet, some mangrove species, and so on. The estuary also turned up some key birds but not a single gull or tern! Just a couple days before then, I had several terns and gulls there but they flew the coupe on the 22nd. We also picked up a few dry forest species on the Cerro Lodge road but not much in the sunny, hot weather.

We got this one just before we left Playa Azul.

11:00 am-12:30 pm: It’s a bit hazy now but I think this was when we drove back up the highway (seeing nothing new) to visit the Turrucares reservoir. It took a bit more time than hoped but resulted well with hoped for Least Grebe, 2 ducks, and bonus Keel-billed Toucan. We also got a high flying Short-tailed Hawk while stopping at an intersection.

12:30 pm-2:00 pm: On we went up slope to the Poas area with a quick stop en route for a friendly Orange-billed Nightingale Thrush in an otherwise silent, warblerless forest. Sunny weather was not a good sign and this marked the point where the Big Day began to seriously slow down. We got the hoped for hummingbirds at the Volcan Restaurant but had to work too much for other birds there and further up slope. Several species did show up including Sooty and Mountain Thrush, both silky flycatchers, Acorn and Hairy Woodpeckers, and some other birds but it was pretty quiet and we just didn’t have to time to wait for the birds to show. Our best bird was a surprise Merlin.

We were happy to hear this uncommon species.

One of the hummingbirds we ticked at the Volcan Restaurant.

2:00 pm-3:00 pm: Part of this time was still spent somewhere around Poas looking for cloud forest species (we got our Prong-billed Barbet) but the luck ran out with road work just before Cinchona. Ouch, there went 20 precious minutes and try as we could to find birds while we waited, only a couple of species showed and called in the sunny weather.

3:30 pm-4:30 pm: A quick stop at Cinchona got us our Green Thorntail and White-bellied Mountain Gem but the fruit feeders were quiet as was the surrounding area. We also picked up Yellow-bellied Elaenia and maybe another bird or two across the street. By 4:30, we finally made it to the Nature Pavilion. This photography hotspot scored us a chachalaca and a few other birds but the area was strangely quiet. We quickly decided to rush over to more forested sites across the river in the hopes of picking up species during the final avian rush of the day.

It's always nice to see this bug-like species.

4:30 pm-5:30 pm: This was the most unexpected hour of the day and the surprise was unwelcome. Basically, the quiet surroundings continued as we saw and heard very few birds for the rest of the day. Most of the hoped for, common species that one usually hears or sees failed to materialize in any way. No Bay Wren, no Black-throated Wren, and so on for many other species. It was very odd and because of this great missing of species, we decided to not bother looking for the handful of night birds we might have still picked up. Instead, we drove home, our final bird being a lone, flyby Green Ibis.

The final tally was 250 species, a total far short of any record but yes, it was another fun, memorable day, as well as being a learning experience. I had to admit that breaking any Big Day record in Costa Rica is unlikely because there are just too many variables. Although you do drive through areas with more than enough species to break every record, the chances of getting enough of those species are diminished by fewer individuals (many species are just not as common as in the past), bird activity slows to a near stop in sunny weather as well as rainy weather so you need something in between, you can miss 40 or more species if you don’t cross paths with mixed flocks, and the birds that frequent the estuary vary quite a bit.

In conclusion, this might be my last Big Day in Costa Rica but it sure would be fun to organize a Costa Rican Birding Rally!

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The first birding app for Panama is a digital field guide with photos, sounds, text, and range maps for more than 500 bird species.

San Jose, Costa Rica – The Panama Birds-Field Guide app became available in the iTunes and Amazon stores in February, 2014. This is the first app and digital field guide for the birds of Panama.

Panama might be better known as a focal point for global banking, business, and retirement, but its impressive biodiversity has also placed the country on the bucket lists of thousands of birders and ecotourists. Birdwatchers make their way to Panama to see hundreds of colorful bird species including such exotic favorites as toucans, macaws, tanagers, dozens of hummingbirds, glittering tanagers, and the stunning Resplendent Quetzal.

The Panama Birds-Field Guide app includes images, information, range maps, and sounds for more than 500 of the commonly encountered bird species that occur in the tropical forests of Panama. The app is designed for ease of use and is suited for both veteran birders and folks just curious about the birds they see on vacation or in their garden. In addition to easy to use search parameters and a full checklist of the birds of Panama, the app also includes a “Which Bird is it?” function that allows app users to email photos and sounds of Panamanian birds for identification,

Michael Mullin, head of programming for Birding Field Guides, believes that this app will add a much needed dimension to birding and wildlife observation in Panama.

He said, “Despite the fact that Panama is a global birding hotspot, there weren’t any apps to help residents and tourists identify the many birds that they see in their gardens and natural areas. Our app was designed with this need in mind and we will continue to update it with more images, information, and vocalizations in the coming months.”

The app is currently available for version 4.3 or higher iPod Touch and iPhone devices, and 2.3.3 or higher Android devices.

About Birding Field Guides

Birding Field Guides was started in 2012 and develops birding and nature-related apps and products for digital devices. For more information, please visit http://birdingfieldguides.com.

To learn more about this product, please contact

Patrick O’Donnell, Media Relations

patrick@birdingfieldguides.com

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admin on February 24th, 2014

The starting place for any international birding trip is usually the capital city. That’s where the plane lands so despite the over-urbanization, that is where most of us invariably begin that birding adventure. Costa Rica is no exception to the rule because unless you happen to be one of the few birders who are traveling overland from Nicaragua or Panama, you are going to fly in to San Jose. You could also fly in to Liberia and that is a better option for starting a trip but most visitors to the country are scheduled to land at Juan SantaMaria airport up there in the Central Valley.

It’s also commonly referred to as the San Jose airport but that’s not really true because the airport is located next to the city of Alajuela. That tidbit of trivia is important because it can help you choose the first place to stay for the night and that locale will therefore be where you officially start the trip. As one would expect, there are plenty of hotels to choose from but there are just a few that are truly birdy. Logistics are also important to consider as are the conservation efforts of the hotel in question. Oh yeah, and then there is the budget thing to consider. Backpackers and folks with very limited budgets probably aren’t going to end up at a very birdy hotel but they can always plan their trip accordingly and get out of that hostel or small room first thing in the morning.

Stay where you can see Gray-necked Wood Rail.

However, if you want to hang around and look for things like Tropical Screech Owl, Mottled Owl, Spot-bellied Bobwhite, Gray-necked Wood Rail, and several other species, then the best place to begin that trip is the Zamora Estates in Santa Ana. The cost is a bit more than other places but given the variety of species, photo opps (some of the images for the Costa Rica Birds Field Guide app were taken there) , wetlands, woodlands, brushy fields, excellent service, gourmet cuisine, and bird friendly owners who protect some of the last remaining wetlands and green space in the western Central Valley, the value is more than worth it.

Zamora is the best place for bird photography in the Central Valley.

A Great Egret poses at Zamora Estate.

If you arrive after dark, watch for night birds like Mottled and Spectacled Owls, and Pacific Screech Owl. Barn and Striped Owls can also show up and you should hear Boat-billed Herons calling from the lagoons. Don’t worry about seeing them at night because they will be there during the day and the owners don’t want anyone going to the lagoons at night in any case to avoid disturbing the many herons, egrets, and other aquatic species that roost there.

One of the Boat-billed Herons from Zamora Estate.

In the morning, you can enjoy breakfast while watching a variety of birds in the lagoons and visiting the bunches of bananas.

A gourmet breakfast with Blue-gray Tanagers is a fantastic way to start the trip.

Hoffmann's Woodpeckers also visit the feeders.

A few short trails pass through woodlands, head past the lagoons, and head through brushy fields and vineyards. These can turn up most of the Central Valley birds and some, including that bobwhite, Grayish Saltator, Rufous-capped Warbler, and others. In other words, it’s a great place to start any birding tour to Costa Rica. Oh yeah, and the rooms are pretty nice too!

Keep an eye out for Rufous-naped Wrens around the rooms.

If there is a downside to staying at Zamora Estate, it’s the traffic that you may face when heading to the hotel during rush hour. However, since that downside also applies to every hotel in the Central Valley, in my opinion, Zamora still comes out on top as the best place to start (and finish) a birding trip to Costa Rica.

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I’m not making this up. Although it might not be news to most people (or even most birders), I thought it was cool enough to share with everyone who uses the Internet. While guiding yesterday on the Cinchona-Poas-Nature Pavilion route, I was very surprised to see a Prothonotary Warbler coming to the bananas at Cinchona!

A Prothonotary Warbler and a banana at Cinchona, Costa Rica.

Why surprised you may wonder? Well, while we do see lots of Prothonotaries in mangroves and other lowland wetlands in Costa Rica, I have never seen or heard of one visiting a feeder. I haven’t seen this species at Cinchona either even away from the feeders. They do move through the country though, and can sometimes be seen in large numbers as they migrate along the Caribbean coast. The bird we saw was a reminder that the Golden Swamp Warbler is on the move. It also shows how famished those migrants must be because this little birdy wasn’t going after any insects on the bananas. It was most definitely feasting on the fruit between bouts of being scared away by Clay-colored Thrushes, Silver-throated Tanagers, and other larger birds

There it goes eating that banana.

Sharing a banana with a Silver-throated Tanager.

No other warblers were seen at the feeders (Tennessees are regular) but I will be hoping and checking during our 2014 Big Day attempt!

On another note, visitors to the Nature Pavilion were regular and awesome as always.

Collared Aracaris were one of the first species to show.

It's always nice to see Great Kiskadees at close range.

A juvenile Black-cowled Oriole made an appearance.

It was cool to watch a Green Honeycreeper hang upside down on a papaya ring.

This species is always crazy with the colors.

Hope to see you while birding! If you see me and two other people running after birds on Saturday, that would be myself, Robert Dean and Susan Blank doing our Big Day. I would have really loved to have invited a couple other friends along (especially Johan) but since they don’t do bird sounds, and 95% of species need to be identified by all team members (many by sound), that would have eliminated too many birds to break any records. We might not anyways but one can always hope!

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One of the most common observations (aka complaints) that birders new to Costa Rica make is related to the sad paucity of raptors. I am definitely sad to admit that this is a valid view because unlike the weedy fields and woodlots far to the north, we don’t see very many raptors on a regular basis. The lower number of raptors is related to higher diversity (and thus lower populations per species due to a higher degree of interspecific competition), and too much substandard forest habitat (edge effects not being conducive to the ecosystems needed to sustain large, healthy populations of forest-based raptors). You see, in Costa Rica, at least half or more of the raptors in the country are very much adapted to intact forest. They don’t do as well in places where there is just as much cow pasture and ag. Fields as rainforest because those habitats just don’t provide enough of the type of food needed for birds like Great Black Hawk, hawk-eagles, Semiplumbeous Hawk, White Hawk, Gray-headed Kite, and so on.

The Great Black Hawk has declined in Costa Rica.

This is probably why birds of prey and a higher diversity of raptors are seen when birding in places with large areas of healthy forest (such as the Osa Peninsula, Braulio Carrillo, Rincon de la Vieja, and so on).

Good forest for raptors at El Tapir and Braulio Carrillo National Park.

However, even if you happen to be hanging out with your binos in fantastic forest, not nearly as many raptors will appear if it rains. While that wet weather can result in views of hawks and falcons perched on an emergent tree, it doesn’t compare to the birds that take to the skies in sunny weather. In general, that aspect of raptor watching in Costa Rica is kind of similar to Europe and North America because this is when all sorts of species can take to the skies.

Last weekend, I got the chance to compare birding during dry and rainy weather at El Tapir and Quebrada Gonzalez. It was sunny on Friday and rained for nearly all of Saturday and guess which day was better for raptors? Yes, Friday at Quebrada Gonzalez was good for birds of prey as well as for several other non-raptorial species including killer looks at Black-crowned Antpitta, Rufous-winged Woodpecker, Red-headed Barbet, antvireos, antwrens, Lattice-tailed Trogon, White-crowned Manakin, and several tanagers including more Blue and Golds than I have ever seen there in one day.

But, back to the raptors- on Friday, we started off the day with a Barred Hawk,

A rare, close look at a Barred Hawk from Cinchona.

saw one or two King Vultures through the trees, and got great looks at an adult Ornate Hawk Eagle in flight. We also saw a couple of Broad-winged Hawks but they are pretty much par for the course during the winter months in Costa Rica. In the afternoon, we also lucked out with totally satisfying views of a Semiplumbeous Hawk on the Ceiba trail. It was nice to finally connect with this uncommon species at Quebrada because I had heard of reports from the Ceiba and Botarrama trails. As with some other, more lowland inclined species, the Semiplumbeous doesn’t seem to be regular on the Las Palmas trail. So, that was sunny Friday and we weren’t even focused on looking for raptors.

A Semiplumbeous Hawk from the Ceibo trail in Braulio Carrillo.

Another look at that Semiplumbeous Hawk.

On rainy Saturday, although we connected with several busy tanager flocks at El Tapir, and saw a fine Ocellated Antbird, we didn’t see anything flying in the rain. However, we still managed nice perched looks at King Vulture and Double-toothed Kite.

A King Vulture in the morning rain.

The raptor happy sunny weather on Friday also reminded me of guiding a week before then at Cinchona and Poas. That was also a very sunny day that resulted in very close looks at Barred Hawks right from the Café Colibri (the name for the Cinchona hummingbird spot), White Hawk, Bat Falcon, Broad-winged Hawk, Short-tailed Hawk, and a distant hawk eagle (probably Ornate but too far away to say).

One more look at the Barred Hawk from Cinchona.

In a couple days, I am headed to Palo Verde- a totally different, more open habitat that might give me some nice looks at open country raptors like Harris’ Hawk,  Swainson’s Hawk, White-tailed Hawk, and Snail Kite, and hopefully a lifer rail and duck. Wish me luck!

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