In continuation, this is my take on birding hotspots for major habitats in Costa Rica (see part one for the three main factors used in determining hotspots):
- The Central Pacific area: We could also just call this “Carara National Park and vicinity” because that is the main hotspot for this part of the country. In fact, this mega-ecotone is such a crossroads of biodiversity, it’s a strong candidate for being the top birding hotspot in Central America. Few other places can claim a list of around 600 recorded species within such a small area as well as regional endemics, uncommon forest species, and so on. Carara and nearby has it all; quality, protected forest, a variety of major habitats (lowland rainforest, dry forest, open areas, mangroves, lowland river, estuaries, and seashore) with a subsequent huge variety of species, and easy access. If there are any downsides to birding the Carara area, they would be the limited opening hours for the national park (7 to 4 during the high season and 8 to 4 in the low season), and the damn heat. That said, easy solutions to those disadvantages come in the form of good birding just outside the national park, and using a combination of air conditioning, lightweight clothing, and cold drinks. There are a few choices for lodging with Cerro Lodge being a stand out for quality birding, photo opportunities, habitat restoration, and proximity to the national park. Villa Lapas also offers similar advantages for the birder, and other choices for lodging a bit further from the park are The Macaw Lodge and Punta Leona.
- The Southern Pacific: Although the forests at Carara are essentially part of the southern Pacific bioregion, there are a few very good sites rather far from Carara that also deserve hotspot status. Good birding can be had around Manuel Antonio National Park and several sites around Dominical but the best birding is found on and near the Osa Peninsula. Outside of the Osa, the Esquinas Rainforest Lodge and vicinity is a major birding hotspot. This is one of my favorite sites in the country simply because you can see a huge variety of species, including many uncommon birds. Bird the road through La Gamba and you might see Crested Oropendola, Brown-throated Parakeet, Scrub Greenlet, Pale-breasted Spinetail, Fork-tailed Flycatcher, and several other birds that can be tough in Costa Rica. If the remaining rice fields have not been converted to oil palm plantations, you might find Paint-billed Crake and rare vagrants. Flowering trees can have everything from Veraguan Mango to White-crested Coquette, and once you reach the rainforests at the lodge and in Piedras Blancas National Park, it’s fairly easy to see four trogon species, several wrens, antbirds, woodcreepers, and so on with chances at the endemic Back-cheeked Ant-Tanager, and Uniform Crake. Check out the 158 species I had during a fairly casual day of guiding in this area.
- The Osa: The good birding in the South Pacific doesn’t stop at Esquinas. There are several excellent sites on the Osa peninsula, including two of the best birding lodges in the country; Bosque del Rio Tigre and Luna Lodge. Both of these are comfortable lodges with fantastic birding and excellent guides with the best local gen you could hope for, and have primary forest connected to the forests of Corcovado National Park. Many of the same species as Esquinas can also be found at and near these sites. Although the birding in the national park is great, problems with access exclude Corcovado from hotspot status. Other great birding sites in the Osa can also be found at stations run by Osa Conservation, at Lapa Rios, Bosque del Cabo, and lodges in the Drake Bay area. Rincon de Osa also deserves mention since it’s the most reliable site in the world for the highly endangered Yellow-billed Cotinga.
- Caribbean foothills: Somewhere between cloud forest and lowland rainforest, the wet foothill forests of the Caribbean slope are very important habitat for hundreds of bird species. In addition to providing a home for Lattice-tailed Trogon and other foothill specialties, these forests are also an important refuge for many lowland forest birds that no longer occur in large areas of the deforested Caribbean coastal plain. There are several good foothill sites to choose from, the most accessible being El Tapir and the Quebrada Gonzalez Ranger Station in Braulio Carrillo National Park, sites around Arenal National Park and Bijagua, and Rancho Naturalista. Rancho in particular, is a classic birding lodge with various feeders, excellent guides, and excellent gen for the lodge and surrounding areas. Near Rancho, El Copal merits a mention because the birding is some of the very best in the country but it’s not as accessible nor as comfortable as Rancho. The same can be said about the Pocosol Research Station, a fantastic site located in the Children’s Eternal Rainforest on the route between San Ramon and La Fortuna. Past La Fortuna, excellent birding can also be had on the grounds of Arenal Observatory Lodge. Further north, sites near Bijagua also offer high quality forest with equally high quality birding including fair chances at Tody Motmot, Lovely Cotinga, uncommon raptors, and much more.
- Caribbean lowlands: Historically, the Caribbean lowlands were cloaked in fantastic ranforests. and the birding must have been spectacular. Stories of that level of birding still exist in the form of tales told by researchers who worked in La Selva during the 70s. They tell of seeing Great Jacamar, hearing about Harpy Eagle sightings, and bearing witness to an abundance of birds, frogs, and other rainforest wildlife rarely encountered in present times. However, this was before massive deforestation changed the ecological landscape of the Caribbean lowlands and the difference in birding is notable. Good birding can still be had at several sites but the best lowland birding is found in areas with connection to the most intact lowland habitats. Such sites also tend to be difficult to access and is why Hitoy Cerere, Veragua, and much less accessible sites fail to make it onto hotspot lists. If you can get there, expect excellent lowland birding. If not, then some very good alternatives are Laguna del Lagarto, the Sarapiqui area, and sites near Puerto Viejo de Talamanca and Manzanillo.
- Laguna del Lagarto might be the best birding hotspot for the Caribbean lowlands because the ecolodge offers a fine combination of comfort, good service, and great birding. Visit and you will be asked when you want to see Agami heron, roosting owls, or other birds they know about. Watch from the porch and you can photograph toucans, parrots, and other birds that visit an excellent feeder. You might also see raptors, King Vulture, Scaled Pigeon, toucans, or Snowy Cotinga in nearby treetops. Inside the forest, you might find White-fronted Nunbird, antbirds, Semiplumbeous Hawk, and even Tawny-faced Quail. Since those forests are also connected to the extensive lowland rainforests of southeastern Nicaragua, maybe Harpy Eagle or Red-throated Caracara will make an appearance?
- That said, if you can’t make it to Laguna del Lagarto, the easiest accessible lowland rainforest is in the Sarapiqui area. Take the early morning birding tour at La Selva for an excellent variety of birds along with great birding on the entrance road to the research station. Stay at La Selva or more comfortable ecolodges like Selva Verde, the Quinta Inn, Sueno Azul, or Tirimbina for good birding on the grounds of the hotel. The reserve at Tirimbina is especially good and can be visited by non-guests of the hotel for a fee although the opening hours are a bit limited. Time should also be made for a boat trip on the Sarapiqui to see Green Ibis, look for Sungrebe, roosting potoos, Sunbittern, and other birds.
- The forests south of Limon can also be excellent for birding and are very easy to access. Much of the habitat around Puerto Viejo de Talamanca and Manzanillo is a mix of lowland rainforest and old shade cacao plantations. Most lowland species seem to be present including Purple-throated fruitcrow, Great Potoo, Green and Rufous Kingfisher, and Tiny Hawk, the birding is often very good right around the hotel, and the area is excellent for migrants.
- Wetlands: There are two top wetland areas in Costa Rica. These are the wetlands of the Tempisque floodplain and the Cano Negro area. Palo Verde National Park is the main site in Tempisque but there are a few other privately owned wetlands as well. Bird Palo Verde for Jabiru and many other wetland species, and a good selection of dry forest birds including Thicket Tinamou. Jabiru is also possible at Cano Negro along with Sungrebe, Great Potoo, Black-collared Hawk, and various other wetland species. Remaining forests at Cano Negro are also good for a fair variety of lowland rainforest species as well as Gray-headed Dove, Spot-breasted Wren, and Bare-crowned Antbird. If visiting Cano Negro, make sure to also take a boat ride in the Medio Queso wetlands near Los Chiles. This is the best area for Pinnated Bittern, Spotted Rail, Least Bittern, Nicaraguan Grackle, Nicaraguan Seed-Finch, and several other rare species.
Visit Costa Rica and you will find good birding in lots of places. Visit the hotspots mentioned in these two posts and you will be visiting the best sites in the country. Make the most of any birding trip to Costa Rica by hiring an experienced birding guide.
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